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Programme Structure

Students can choose to follow one of three different tracks in the EMLE programme: the ‘Economic Analysis of Markets, Corporations & regulators track’ (MCR), the ‘Economic Analysis of Public & International Law track’ (Public), and the ‘Economic Analysis of Innovation and Intellectual Property track’ (IP). While in the first term the courses are the same across all tracks and universities, specialization starts in the second term with two specialized courses per track and three courses that will be the same across the different tracks and university partners. The third term finalizes the chosen specialization with two courses that are unique to the chosen track and university, and the final thesis written under supervision of a professor from the third term University. Below you can find more information about the courses of each of the tracks. For a visual overview of the structure, please click here.

Students are not obliged to follow a track but will earn a recognizing certificate if they do so. If students decide not to follow a track, they may choose the universities to study at freely, always based on availability of spots per university. In this, however, they need to follow the general mobility rules of the programme: all students need to study at least at two different European universities. Therefore, students who wish to study at either Haifa or Mumbai, our two non-European partners, will have to choose two other European partners to spend their EMLE year. It is therefore not possible to study both at Haifa and Mumbai during the year, and likewise, it is both not possible to spend the first term in Haifa followed by two terms in Hamburg, or also spending the two first terms at the same European partner (e.g. Rotterdam or Hamburg) to go to Mumbai in the third term.

Eight shared courses

All five first term courses in Haifa, Rotterdam and Hamburg are the same across the different partner Universities. In the second term, three courses are the same for each University (Ghent, Hamburg and Rotterdam). You can find out more about the shared courses below.


First term courses

Foundations of Law and Economics

The course Foundations of Law and Economics consists of two modules: Introduction to Law and Introduction to Microeconomics.

Introduction to Law (2 ECTS)

This course provides a general introduction to the law and to the study of law. Students will become acquainted with the main fields of law: private law, criminal law, constitutional and administrative law. Specific attention will be paid to the basic differences between common law and civil law systems and to the relationship between national laws and European law. Besides the study and discussion of literature, students will train specific legal skills, such as the use of statutes, the analysis of judgments and the solution of legal cases. This course seeks to:

Harmonize levels of understanding of law among lawyers and economists in the EMLE programme

Facilitate among lawyers from various countries an understanding of basic legal concepts and doctrines across legal systems

Introduce both lawyers & economists to legal concepts and methods that are instrumental in the field of law and economics

Introduction to Microeconomics (2 ECTS)

Economic analysis of law investigates legal rules and enforcement from an efficiency perspective.  The main purpose of this course is to equip students with the fundamental set of conceptual tools of microeconomics, which can be applied to different economic and regulatory problems. After dwelling into the analytics of consumers’ and producers’ choice, the course discusses the main market structures, risk and uncertainty, and market failures.

Concepts and Methods of Law and Economics (4 ECTS)

This course offers an introduction to the basic concepts and methods of law and economics. It illustrates the broad utility of these tools by way of applications to the analysis of various core areas of law. This course does not aim to develop practical skills or new insights, but rather to show the broad utility of economic analysis of law. By combining examples from various areas of law, students will learn that the economic approach to law provides a unified vision of the law, tying together diverse areas of the law into a common theoretical structure.

Economic Analysis of Public Law (4 ECTS)

This course offers an introduction to the economic analysis of regulation, which is broadly interpreted as government intervention in market processes. The course illustrates the purposes of regulatory intervention from a welfare economics perspective, and it discusses the tension between public and private interest in regulatory choices. A special focus of this course is on issues of European regulation and on cost-benefit analysis.

Economic Analysis of Private Law (8 ECTS)

This double course aims at giving students an overview of the most important insights from the economic analysis of private law. It combines economic analysis of property law, tort law, and contract law. As far as property law is concerned, the course integrates the legal and the economic approach to ownership and illustrates costs and benefits of different ways to protect entitlements. As far as tort law is concerned, the course offers a comparative analysis of the legal principles from an economic perspective, particularly regarding the structure of liability, the damage compensation, and the insurance. As far as contract law is concerned, the course illustrates its goals and functions from an economic perspective. Moreover, it aims to provide a functional understanding of the spectrum of feasible contracts and of their use in legal practice.


Second term courses

In addition to the common courses below, each second term university provides two unique courses following the specialization track. More information about these are given in the other tabs.

Empirical Legal Studies (4 ECTS)

Modern law and economics is unthinkable without empirical tests. This course makes students familiar with the most important aspects of such tests from the design stage, to the collection of data to the actual estimate of simple econometric models. It is a “hands on” course including many practical exercises. Students of this course will learn to:

  1. Think creatively about research design
  2. Describe the data
  3. Run OLS regressions
  4. Interpret the data as it relates to causality

Corporate Governance and Finance (4 ECTS)

Economic efficiency may be undermined by misallocation of financial resources. This course discusses corporate law and financial regulation from the perspective of the correction of financial markets failure. The course focuses on the various legal, contractual and extra-legal mechanisms available to protect (minority) shareholders and other stakeholders from the self-serving behaviour of managers and of controlling shareholders. Moreover, the course addresses the problem of financial distress and its consequences for the financing of private and public enterprises, as well as for financial stability.

Competition Law & Economics (4 ECTS)

Competition policy (also called “antitrust policy”) is a term used broadly to describe intervention by public authorities to ensure competition in markets for goods and services. This course aims at making students familiar with the application of economic arguments in European competition law. Comparisons with U.S. antitrust law are included where appropriate for a better understanding of cases and the implications of legislation and court rulings on economic efficiency.

Second term specialized courses in the MCR track

The track ‘Economic Analysis of Markets, Corporations & Regulators’ is linked to Rotterdam in the second term. Here, the following two specialized courses are taught:

Advanced Economics of Regulation (4 ECTS)

This course aims to provide students with specialized knowledge in topical fields of economic and social regulation, including applications of competition policy to specific industries. To this purpose, the course supports guest lectures by field experts, who are either academics or professionals with a law and economics background, or both. Students are supposed to be already familiar with the methodology of economic analysis of regulation in order to bring the discussion to a more advanced level. This course prepares the students to use their skills both scientifically and in policymaking. The contents of the course are updated yearly. The topics include inter alia regulation of liberal professions, public utilities, environmental regulations and recent developments in competition policy.

Markets, Corporations and Regulators Moot Court (4 ECTS)

This course is designed to provide students with advanced skills on the enforcement of law in the field of regulation of markets. In particular, students learn how to use economic arguments and economic evidence in real-life cases in courts and/or regulatory agencies. The course is organized in a moot court format. Students must take the role of plaintiffs, defendants, regulators or regulatees. They are supposed to base their arguments and decisions, both orally and in writing, on economic analysis of law. The topics, which are reviewed yearly, include inter alia competition law, product liability, mergers and acquisitions, financial and consumer law.


Third term specialized courses in the MCR track

During the third term in the MCR track, students can chose to go to one of the below four locations. The courses taught at each university are listed below them.

Vienna

Cases in Competition Law & Economics (2.5 ECTS)

This seminar is for master students and covers selected topics in competition law and economics. We start with basic game theoretical models explaining market behavior in monopolies and oligopolies. We then discuss methods applied in antitrust cases as market definition, assessment of market power, evaluation of mergers and calculation of cartel damages. Students will present related competition cases and write a term paper.

The aim of this seminar is to expand students’ knowledge of advances in the field of competition economics at the master level. A particular emphasis is put on empirical applications and the discussion and presentation of cases. This course provides lectures on the basic game theoretic models as well as on the empirical implantation of these models and their applications. By presenting case studies, students will learn how to apply the theoretical and the econometric models to real world situations.

Learning Goals

Students learn theoretical, methodological and empirical knowledge in competition economics.

Students learn how to apply theoretical and empirical concepts in competition economics to real world cases.

Students extend their ability to effectively structure and communicate economic content in written form to audiences from academia, government and business.

Topics

  • Market definition and assessment of market power
  • Collusion and horizontal agreements
  • Horizontal mergers
  • Vertical restraints and vertical mergers
  • Predation, monopolization and other abusive practices.

Enforcement of Competition Law: Dispute Resolution & Procedure (2.5 ECTS)

The course deals with the enforcement of competition law in a twofold manner. On the one hand, it discusses the current EU-framework, the relevant case law and pertinent policy proposals and, on the other hand, it relates this competition-law specific policy approach to the general analysis of the respective topics (torts, criminal law, law enforcement, procedure). The seminar is held in English.

This seminar aims at providing students with a research/literature-based analysis of advanced issues regarding the enforcement of competition law in the broad sense. The seminar also aims at increasing the students´ employability in economic consulting firms, in law firms, and in other specialized units (such as competition authorities) in the area of competition law.

Topics covered:

  • Fines, their calculation and their enforcement;
  • The mix of enforcement instruments in competition law;
  • Leniency and the interplay with other enforcement tools;
  • Secrecy obligations and access to court files;
  • The role of tort law in the enforcement of competition law;
  • The passing-on defence;
  • The role of criminal law in the enforcement of competition law;
  • Penal/Criminal liability of the corporation;
  • The role of “elite” enforcement agencies vis-à-vis that of regular courts in the enforcement of competition law;
  • The law and economics of procedure and the role of “competition law-specific procedural law”;
  • Arbitration and competition law;
  • State aid law and the enforcement of state aid rules.

Warsaw

International Corporate Governance (2.5 ECTS)

The aim of the course is to present the interdisciplinary concept of corporate governance by analyzing institutions and mechanisms of corporation supervision as well as institutions and mechanisms ensuring management accountability from international perspective. In different economic systems, different mechanisms and institutions of management supervision have emerged. Hence, the course takes the systemic view of the governance structures found around the world. A systems view tries to discover the ”internal logic” of a set of corporate governance mechanisms and institutions – how well do the components fit together? After the course students are capable of blocks building of corporate governance system as well as know the corporate governance mechanisms and their appropriateness of an entire system.

Selected topics:
What does corporation  mean, and what are its main goals?; Roots and perspectives of corporate governance; Market governance; Debt governance; Study of the various governance institutional setting and path dependence based on examples of different countries; Corporate governance, finance, law, politics and efficiency; Corporate governance and economic development; Corporate governance in transition economies and other emerging markets.

Special Topics: Cybersecurity and Corporate Governance; The rise of compliance function after the financial crisis; How gender diversity matters for corporate governance; international experience.

 

International Financial Markets and Regulators (2.5 ECTS)

The aim of the course is to present the mosaic system of domestic and international supervision over the financial market from the EU perspective and outside of the European Union. The European Union has been active within the financial sector, in particular after the financial crises of 2009. Students will learn about institutions involved in the European supervision, e.g. European Central Bank as well as they will be taught about various regulations over financial market incluing outside oft he European Union.

Selected topics:
Microprudential v. macroprudential supervision; Three pillars of European Banking Union: Single Supervisory Mechanism, Single Resolution Mechanism, European Deposit Insurance Scheme; Capital Market Union; European Supervisory Institutions: European Banking Authority, European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority,  European Securities and Markets Authority.

Special Topics: Capital Requirements Directive 4 (CRD); Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR); Market Abuse Regulation (MAR); Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (BRRDD); Markets in Financial Instruments Directive 2 (MIFID 2); Payment System Directive 2 (PSD 2).


Rome

Experimental Approaches to Law Making and Regulation (2.5 ECTS)

Students will start with learning the foundations of experimental methodology both in the lab and in the field, including some basic techniques for designing software and for analyzing the experimental data.  Students will cover a selective list of experimental evidences supporting major findings of the standard L&E literature (that may include property, tort, contracts and crime as well as to the topics of consumer choice and behavioral regulation). Students will learn how to design and implement robust tests of regulatory reforms proposals through randomized control trials techniques.

Selected topics: Cognitive Biases: loss aversion, ambiguity aversion, endowment effect, status quo bias etc. Social preferences and social norms. Preferences for conformity and expressive function of law. Randomization and causal inference. Treatment manipulation. Experimental design. Experimental software (z-tree) and paper & pencil techniques. Property law: the endowment effect, taking aversion and the hawk & Dove game. Contract law: specific performance and loss aversion. Criminal law: distributional and fairness concerns, adjudicative errors. Consumer choice. Behavioural Regulation, Nudging: persistence, acceptance and crowding out effects.

Better Regulation (2.5 ECTS)

Students will approach all stages of the regulatory process, from rulemaking to institutional framework and enforcement, and they will acquire tools to improve the flow and the stock of regulation used at national, European and international level. Students will also familiarize with a large body of evidence from cognitive sciences that is relevant to regulation and will discover how it is being currently used in the regulatory process. Another learning goal concerns the analysis of the impact of cognitive sciences on the regulatory toolkit.

Selected topics: Economic regulation over the course of the twentieth century; What does good regulation mean, and what are its core elements?; Regulation and competition; Cognitive-based approach to regulation; New regulatory tools: nudging and cognitive empowerment; Tools for better regulation in the regulatory life-cycle: Impact Assessment; Competition Impact Assessment; Assessing regulatory burdens; Plain language drafting; Regulatory Enforcement.


Aix-en-Provence

Legal Framework for the Digital Economy (2.5 ECTS)

The course aims at providing a thorough and rigorous analysis of the legal issues that follow from the deep effects that the Internet and digital technologies have (i) on the structure of existing markets, (ii) on the creation of new markets, and (iii) on the strategies that economic agents (firms, consumers and regulators) deploy on these various markets.

The tools of the theory of industrial organization are used to understand a wide array of online market phenomena, including multi-sided platforms, impacts of ‘big data’ (targeted advertising and pricing, recommendation systems, privacy), net neutrality and online business models. The course makes use of case studies to make parallels between theory and reality.

At the end of the course, students should be able to (i) master an array of specific concepts from the theory of industrial organization, so as (ii) to understand how the Internet affects the working of markets, (iii) as well as the strategies implemented by firms, consumers and regulators on these markets, and (iv) to apply these theoretical concepts to inform public policy.

Selected Topic: Software Platforms, Mobile Telephony, Two-sided B2B platforms, Online-Offline Competition; Digital Piracy: Theory; Digital Piracy: Empirics; Privacy; Internet Security

Competition Law for New Business Models (2.5 ECTS)

The course will first establish, via real life examples, that the production of goods and services is more than ever best characterized as a discovery process driven by an entrepreneurial spirit that constantly shifts the lines of the pre-existing markets and, as a matter of fact, invents new ways of developing profitable businesses (Google, Facebook, Smart phones, Block chains, etc).  Starting from this analysis, the course will explore the relevance of the traditional concept of competition law (e.g. monopoly’s dead weight losses, SSNIP test or essential facility doctrine for a platform business) and their recent evolution. The course will also re-examine the articulation between, on one hand, ex ante regulation and, on the other hand, ex post correction via competition law in this new market environment. Finally, the role of intellectual property rights and their connection with the dynamic efficiency of markets will be investigated.

Topics will include: Static versus Dynamic efficiency; The regulation of Electronic Payment Systems; The economics of internet hardware; Price Discrimination in the Digital Economy; Mobile Telephony

Second term specialized courses in the Public track

The ‘Economic Analysis of Public & International Law’ track is connected to Hamburg in the second term. Here, the following two specialized courses are taught at the University of Hamburg:

 

Economic Analysis of Constitutions (4 ECTS)

This course aims at providing students an overview of the fast growing field of constitutional law & economics. After laying the groundwork (why an economic theory of the constitution? What concepts of the constitution are used – and useful?), it delves into the normative analysis of constitutions (Rawls, Buchanan).

The main focus is, however, on positive issues. These can be separated into the (economic) effects of constitutions on the one hand and the determinants of constitutions on the other. The effects of a number of constitutional rules such as the form of government, the electoral system, and the use of direct democracy will be analyzed.  After having shown that constitutions can have far-reaching effects, the course asks how the differences between constitutions can be explained. The course closes with a discussion of open questions such as the gap between de jure constitutional rules and their actual implementation.

Throughout this course, comparative and quantitative analyses will occupy center stage.

 

Economic Analysis of International Law (4 ECTS)

The economic analysis of international law is a relatively young area of Law & Economics. Many exciting questions have been posed but few have been answered convincingly. The course begins by formulating a number of essential questions with regard to central issues of international law from an economic point of view.  The course deals with the sources of international law as well as the role of international organizations in its implementation.  It also discusses the relevance of domestic institutions for the implementation of international law. A large chunk of the course is devoted to analyze specific areas of international law (such as investment, trade, but also human rights and refugee law) from an economic point of view.

 

Third term specialized courses in the Public track

During the third term, students can choose to go to one of the following three locations. The courses taught at each university are listed below them.

Mumbai

Law & Economics of Development: Foundations (2.5 ECTS)

The course introduces students to fundamental development problems, issues faced by developing nations, debates on the relationship between law and (economic) development and exposes them to the diversity of international experience regarding legal interventions to promote development. It hopes to encourage students to go beyond multi-country/period statistical analyses and study the interface between law and economy as if both space and time, i.e., the historical context, mattered and appreciate the mutually constitute relationship between law, legal institutions, and economy.

The course begins with an introduction to various economic perspectives on the relationship between law and development and then gradually complicates the narrative by bringing in multidisciplinary critiques, historical studies, and case studies on recent law and development interventions across the world.

Selected topics: Lives of Poor, Vicious cycle of Poverty, Classical ideas such as Balanced and Unbalanced Growth, Development as choice among multiple equilibria: Nurkse equilibrium, Development through growth convergence and Two Sector Models: Arthur Lewis and Harris-Todaro Model of Migration. Child labor, Sexual harassment and Free Contract. Role of Property Rights in Economic Development: Basic model, optimal assignment of property rights, state capacity and property rights; Focal point approach to Law in Developing Countries: Coordination and Information. Political Economy, Law and Land Reform. Introduction to the inter-relationship between Law and Development; Analysis of Law, Finance and Economic Development; Competing hypotheses: Legal origins, Colonial history, Political economy, Institutional stability, or Transplant effect; Country and regional case studies; and Law and Society.

 

Law & Economics of Development: Institutions (2.5 ECTS)

This course is designed to expose the student to fundamental theoretical perspectives and empirical research that have developed over the years to study the emergence and functions of institutions, with special emphasis placed on law as an institution. Insights gained in the course will be helpful in understanding the role of institutions in development, and in analysing the process of economic change.

 

The course is divided into four main sections, namely (i) why study institutions matter (ii) theoretical perspectives in institutional economics (iii) how institutions matter, and (iv) understanding institutional evolution. Topics covered under these sections include how social, political and legal institutions impact economic development, bounded rationality and institutions, the function of institutions in mitigating collective action problems,  rent seeking, interest groups and policy formulation, role of institutions in reduction of transaction costs, the role of rules and norms in coordinating and protecting institutions, and the role of behavioral interdependencies and path dependencies in institutional evolution. Case studies, cross-country empirical analyses and real world examples, particularly with respect to emerging economies, will be discussed along with each theoretical topic to help the student gain a practical understanding of how institutions function to facilitate/inhibit economic development.


Hamburg

European Union Law & Economics (2.5 ECTS)

This course is devoted to an economic analysis of EU integration. We shall evaluate the case for economic integration in fields such as free movement of goods, free movement of workers, freedom of establishment, free movement of services and of capital. Understanding the legal framework and the lawmaking process is crucial for a complete picture of the EU. The course will also consider the economics of the Euro as a single currency, the design of the Eurozone, and the consequences of the financial crisis.

 

Law & Economics of International Trade & Investment (2.5 ECTS)

This course aims at enabling students to carry out the economic analysis of international trade and investment law autonomously and independently. This promises to be an intellectual challenge as the economic analysis of international law is still in its infancy.


Rome

Experimental Approaches to Law Making and Regulation (2.5 ECTS)

Students will start with learning the foundations of experimental methodology both in the lab and in the field, including some basic techniques for designing software and for analyzing the experimental data.  Students will cover a selective list of experimental evidences supporting major findings of the standard L&E literature (that may include property, tort, contracts and crime as well as to the topics of consumer choice and behavioral regulation). Students will learn how to design and implement robust tests of regulatory reforms proposals through randomized control trials techniques.

Selected topics: Cognitive Biases: loss aversion, ambiguity aversion, endowment effect, status quo bias etc. Social preferences and social norms. Preferences for conformity and expressive function of law. Randomization and causal inference. Treatment manipulation. Experimental design. Experimental software (z-tree) and paper & pencil techniques. Property law: the endowment effect, taking aversion and the hawk & Dove game. Contract law: specific performance and loss aversion. Criminal law: distributional and fairness concerns, adjudicative errors. Consumer choice. Behavioural Regulation, Nudging: persistence, acceptance and crowding out effects.

 

Better Regulation (2.5 ECTS)

Students will approach all stages of the regulatory process, from rulemaking to institutional framework and enforcement, and they will acquire tools to improve the flow and the stock of regulation used at national, European and international level. Students will also familiarize with a large body of evidence from cognitive sciences that is relevant to regulation and will discover how it is being currently used in the regulatory process. Another learning goal concerns the analysis of the impact of cognitive sciences on the regulatory toolkit.

Selected topics: Economic regulation over the course of the twentieth century; What does good regulation mean, and what are its core elements?; Regulation and competition; Cognitive-based approach to regulation; New regulatory tools: nudging and cognitive empowerment; Tools for better regulation in the regulatory life-cycle: Impact Assessment; Competition Impact Assessment; Assessing regulatory burdens; Plain language drafting; Regulatory Enforcement.

Second term specialized courses in the Innovation & IP track

The ‘Innovation & IP’ track is connected to Ghent in the second term. Here, the following two courses are taught:

 

Economic Analysis of Intellectual Property (4 ECTS)

This course will introduce students to the intersection between intellectual property law and economics. Topics range from the economic justification of intellectual property law, the enforcement of intellectual property, the political economy of intellectual property protection, as well as empirical studies of the effects of intellectual property rights on incentives and the level of creativity and innovation in society. The course will focus on copyright law, patent law, trademark law, and trade secrets.

Selected Topics: Economics of creativity and innovation; Economics of copyright law; Economics of patent law; Economics of trademark law; Economics of trade secret protection.

 

Advanced Contract Law and Economics (4 ECTS)

This course discusses advanced topics in contract law and economics with a focus on contexts of innovation and creativity. Through the lens of principal-agent-theory, we examine topics such as the function of contracts in innovative relations, contract design of venture capitalists, problems of crowdfunding, and the interaction of incentive schemes and creative output. A sound understanding of basic game-theoretic concepts of economic theory of contracts is a strongly suggested prerequisite for this course. While economic theory will be the methodological focus, the course accounts for insights from behavioral and experimental economics where appropriate.

 

Third term specialized courses in the Innovation & IP track

During the third term, students can chose to go to one of the following three locations. The courses taught at each university are listed below them.

Mumbai

Law & Economics of Development: Foundations (2.5 ECTS)

The course introduces students to fundamental development problems, issues faced by developing nations, debates on the relationship between law and (economic) development and exposes them to the diversity of international experience regarding legal interventions to promote development. It hopes to encourage students to go beyond multi-country/period statistical analyses and study the interface between law and economy as if both space and time, i.e., the historical context, mattered and appreciate the mutually constitute relationship between law, legal institutions, and economy.

The course begins with an introduction to various economic perspectives on the relationship between law and development and then gradually complicates the narrative by bringing in multidisciplinary critiques, historical studies, and case studies on recent law and development interventions across the world.

Selected topics: Lives of Poor, Vicious cycle of Poverty, Classical ideas such as Balanced and Unbalanced Growth, Development as choice among multiple equilibria: Nurkse equilibrium, Development through growth convergence and Two Sector Models: Arthur Lewis and Harris-Todaro Model of Migration. Child labor, Sexual harassment and Free Contract. Role of Property Rights in Economic Development: Basic model, optimal assignment of property rights, state capacity and property rights; Focal point approach to Law in Developing Countries: Coordination and Information. Political Economy, Law and Land Reform. Introduction to the inter-relationship between Law and Development; Analysis of Law, Finance and Economic Development; Competing hypotheses: Legal origins, Colonial history, Political economy, Institutional stability, or Transplant effect; Country and regional case studies; and Law and Society.

 

Law & Economics of Development: Institutions (2.5 ECTS)

This course is designed to expose the student to fundamental theoretical perspectives and empirical research that have developed over the years to study the emergence and functions of institutions, with special emphasis placed on law as an institution. Insights gained in the course will be helpful in understanding the role of institutions in development, and in analysing the process of economic change.

 

The course is divided into four main sections, namely (i) why study institutions matter (ii) theoretical perspectives in institutional economics (iii) how institutions matter, and (iv) understanding institutional evolution. Topics covered under these sections include how social, political and legal institutions impact economic development, bounded rationality and institutions, the function of institutions in mitigating collective action problems,  rent seeking, interest groups and policy formulation, role of institutions in reduction of transaction costs, the role of rules and norms in coordinating and protecting institutions, and the role of behavioral interdependencies and path dependencies in institutional evolution. Case studies, cross-country empirical analyses and real world examples, particularly with respect to emerging economies, will be discussed along with each theoretical topic to help the student gain a practical understanding of how institutions function to facilitate/inhibit economic development.

 

Aix-en-Provence

 

Legal Framework for the Digital Economy (2.5 ECTS)

The course aims at providing a thorough and rigorous analysis of the legal issues that follow from the deep effects that the Internet and digital technologies have (i) on the structure of existing markets, (ii) on the creation of new markets, and (iii) on the strategies that economic agents (firms, consumers and regulators) deploy on these various markets.

The tools of the theory of industrial organization are used to understand a wide array of online market phenomena, including multi-sided platforms, impacts of ‘big data’ (targeted advertising and pricing, recommendation systems, privacy), net neutrality and online business models. The course makes use of case studies to make parallels between theory and reality.

At the end of the course, students should be able to (i) master an array of specific concepts from the theory of industrial organization, so as (ii) to understand how the Internet affects the working of markets, (iii) as well as the strategies implemented by firms, consumers and regulators on these markets, and (iv) to apply these theoretical concepts to inform public policy.

Selected Topic: Software Platforms, Mobile Telephony, Two-sided B2B platforms, Online-Offline Competition; Digital Piracy: Theory; Digital Piracy: Empirics; Privacy; Internet Security

 

Competition Law for New Business Models (2.5 ECTS)

The course will first establish, via real life examples, that the production of goods and services is more than ever best characterized as a discovery process driven by an entrepreneurial spirit that constantly shifts the lines of the pre-existing markets and, as a matter of fact, invents new ways of developing profitable businesses (Google, Facebook, Smart phones, Block chains, etc).  Starting from this analysis, the course will explore the relevance of the traditional concept of competition law (e.g. monopoly’s dead weight losses, SSNIP test or essential facility doctrine for a platform business) and their recent evolution. The course will also re-examine the articulation between, on one hand, ex ante regulation and, on the other hand, ex post correction via competition law in this new market environment. Finally, the role of intellectual property rights and their connection with the dynamic efficiency of markets will be investigated.

Topics will include: Static versus Dynamic efficiency; The regulation of Electronic Payment Systems; The economics of internet hardware; Price Discrimination in the Digital Economy; Mobile Telephony


Barcelona

Law and Economics of Innovation (2.5 ECTS)

The course provides a general overview of the problems arising from the interaction between technology and the law. The general economic analysis of contracts, torts and property will be applied to the challenges posed by smart contracts, algorithm contracts, self-driving contracts, the interaction between big data and competition law, the internet of things and the application of products liability and insurance to fully automated devices. Sharing and collaborative economy formulas will also be analyzed in the course.

 

Advanced Course on Intellectual Property

The course focuses on the specific issues that the internet poses to the traditional law and governance of intellectual property rights. From an economic perspective, the course deals with the impact of information technologies on intellectual property law regimes, collaborative creativity on the internet and other forms of shared innovations, digital exhaustion and challenges to the enforcement of intellectual property rights and to the application of traditional remedies. The course also deals with the legal and economic rationales behind specific remedies such as disgorgement of profits. The law and economics of technical protection measures and the impact of blockchain technology will also be analysed.

Not following a track

Students also have the option to not follow a track. Here, applicants can give a choice of the different Universities that they would like to attend, always following the mobility rules of the program that students have to attend at least two different European Universities. Please note that at the different Universities only a limited number of spots are available. Therefore, students who do wish to follow a track will be allocated to their preferred universities with priority. The students who have indicated that they do not want to follow a track, will be allocated afterwards. This increases the chance that these students cannot be allocated to their most preferred allocations but maybe to their second choices for one or more terms.

How an EMLE thesis is written

The EMLE thesis is written in the third term of the EMLE year, supervised by a professor affiliated to the third term University. Therefore, the choice of third term location determines to a certain point a student’s thesis topic and scope.


Finding a thesis topic

Students will have to submit two short proposals for their thesis already at the beginning of the second term (before the midterm meeting in February). For this, students can research topics based on their own interests with an eye on the third term location, as this choice determines which kind of thesis (topic) can be supervised at this location. Students are invited to look at example theses from previous EMLE years in our thesis archive, or find inspiration on the websites of the different partner Universities.

At the first day of the midterm meeting, every year in mid-February, students will meet with their third term colleagues and local coordinators in the thesis meeting to discuss their thesis topics, find a working title for the thesis and have a supervisor assigned. After that (but not later than April 1), students are invited to start writing their thesis, meeting with their supervisors at least 2-3 times until the date of the deadline, usually around mid-August. The supervision style may differ from University to University slightly, from supervisors reading full or part of the drafts to discussing the thesis in general terms without reading any written text before submission.


Writing

Before starting to write, students will be referred to the guide “How to write an EMLE thesis” and will attend an EMLE-specific seminar on writing and plagiarism in the second term. Students will learn about the correct citation styles used for EMLE theses and general tips for writing and finding and identifying the right literature.


Submission

The thesis has to be submitted to the deadline communicated by the EMLE Management Team by email. Every year this is a day in mid-August. The thesis has to be submitted in both word and pdf formats and will be subject to a general check for plagiarism, completeness and word count. Students will be notified immediately if their thesis was flagged for irregularity and be asked to address it. The theses are then forwarded to both the supervisor and an external examiner to assess the thesis.


Evaluation of the thesis

The two readers, supervisor and external examiner, will assign a grade on the scale of 0-30 for the thesis. In order to pass, students will have to get at least 30 points in total and from each reader at least 15 points. If the readers disagree on the evaluation of a thesis, a third reviewer is asked to evaluate the thesis.


Communication of the results

The results of the thesis will be communicated with the overall result of the program by the end of October.